J. C. Ryle
Simplicity in Preaching
John Charles Ryle (1816-1900) was known as a thoroughly evangelical and uncompromising pastor and writer.
The son of a wealthy banker, he eschewed a calling to politics to become a pastor. He was spiritually awakened
in 1938 while listening to the reading of Ephesians 2. He served various parishes, or served as Bishop, for 61
years. During this time he built 40 churches,he became known for his essays on doctrine and became the leader
of the evangelical party of the church of England. He retired at the age of 83 and died a year
King Solomon says, in the book of Ecclesiastes, “Of making many books there is no end” (12:12). There are few
subjects about which that saying is more true than that of preaching. The volumes which have been written in
order to show ministers how to preach are enough to make a small library. In sending forth one more little
treatise, I only propose to touch one branch of the subject. I do not pretend to consider what should be the
substance and matter of a sermon. I purposely leave alone such points as “gravity, unction, liveliness,
warmth,” and the like, or the comparative merits of written or extemporaneous sermons. I wish to confine myself
to one point, which receives far less attention than it deserves. That point is simplicity in language and
I ought to be able to tell my readers something about “simplicity,” if experience will give any help. I began
preaching forty-five years ago, when I first took orders in a poor rural parish, and a great portion of my
ministerial life has been spent in preaching to laborers and farmers. I know the enormous difficulty of
preaching to such hearers, of making them understand one’s meaning, and securing their attention. So far as
concerns language and composition, I deliberately say that I would rather preach before the University at
Oxford or Cambridge, or the Temple, or Lincoln’s Inn, or the Houses of Parliament, than I would address an
agricultural congregation on a fine hot afternoon in the month of August. I have heard of a laborer who enjoyed
the day he went to church more than any other day in the week, “Because,” he said, “I sit comfortably in
church, put up my legs, have nothing to think about, and just go to sleep.” Some of my younger friends in the
ministry may some day be called to preach to such congregations as I have had, and I shall be glad if they can
profit by my experience.
Before entering on the subject, I wish to clear the way by making four prefatory remarks.
1. For one thing, I ask all my readers to remember that to attain simplicity in preaching is of the utmost
importance to every minister who wishes to be useful to souls. Unless you are simple in your sermons you will
never be understood, and unless you are understood you cannot do good to those who hear you. It was a true
saying of Quintilian, “If you do not wish to be understood, you deserve to be neglected.” Of course the first
object of a minister should be to preach the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but “the truth as it is in
Jesus.” But the next thing he ought to aim at is, that his sermon may be understood; and it will not be
understood by most of his hearers if it is not simple.
2. The next thing I will say, by way of prefatory remark, is, that to attain simplicity in preaching is by no
means an easy matter. No greater mistake can be made than to suppose this. “To make hard things seem hard,” to
use the substance of a saying of Archbishop Usher’s, “is within the reach of all, but to make hard things seem
easy and intelligible is a height attained by very few speakers.” One of the wisest and best of the Puritans
said two hundred years ago, “that the greater part of preachers shoot over the heads of the people.” This is
true also in 1837! I fear a vast proportion of what we preach is not understood by our hearers any more than if
it were Greek. When people hear a simple sermon, or read a simple tract, they are apt to say, “How true! how
plain! how easy to understand!” and to suppose that any one can write in that style. Allow me to tell my
readers that it is an extremely difficult thing to write simple, clear, perspicuous, and forcible English. Look
at the sermons of Charles Bradley, of Clapham. A sermon of his reads most beautifully. It is so simple and
natural, that anyone feels at once that the meaning is as clear as the sun at noonday. Every word is the right
word, and every word is in its right place. Yet the labor those sermons cost Mr. Bradley was very great indeed.
Those who have read Goldsmith’s Vicar of Wakefield attentively, can hardly fail to have noticed the exquisite
naturalness, ease, and simplicity of its language. And yet it is known that the pains and trouble and time
bestowed upon that work were immense. Let the Vicar of Wakefield be compared with Johnson’s Rasselas, which was
written off in a few days, it is said, under higher pressure-and the difference is at once apparent. In fact,
to use very long words, to seem very learned, to make people go away after a sermon saying, “How fine! how
clever! how grand!” all this is very easy work. But to write what will strike and stick, to speak or to write
that which at once pleases and is understood, and becomes assimilated with a hearer’s mind and a thing never
forgotten-that, we may depend upon it, is a very difficult thing and a very rare attainment.
3. Let me observe, in the next place, that when I talk of simplicity in preaching, I would not have my readers
suppose I mean childish preaching. If we suppose the poor like that sort of sermon, we are greatly mistaken. If
our hearers once imagine we consider them a parcel of ignorant folks for whom any kind of “infant’s food” is
good enough, our chance of doing good is lost altogether. People do not like even the appearance of
‘condescending preaching’. They feel we are not treating them as equals, but inferiors. Human nature always
dislikes that. They will at once put up their backs, stop their ears, and take offence-and then we might as
well preach to the winds.
4. Finally, let me observe, that it is not coarse or vulgar preaching that is needed. It is quite possible to
be simple, and yet to speak like a gentleman, and with the demeanor of a courteous and refined person. It is an
utter mistake to imagine that uneducated and illiterate men and women prefer to be spoken to in an illiterate
way, and by an uneducated person. To suppose that a lay-evangelist or Scripture-reader, who knows nothing of
Latin or Greek, and is only familiar with his Bible, is more acceptable than an Oxford first-class man, or a
Cambridge wrangler (if that first-class man knows how to preach), is a complete error. People only tolerate
vulgarity and coarseness, as a rule, when they can get nothing else.
Having made these prefatory remarks in order to clear the way, I will now proceed to give my readers five brief
hints as to what seems to me the best method of attaining simplicity in preaching.
1. My first hint is this-If you want to attain simplicity in preaching, take care that you have a clear view of
the subject upon which you are going to preach. I ask your special attention to this. Of all the fie hints I am
about to give, this is the most important. Mind, then, when your text is chosen, that you understand it and see
right through it; that you know precisely what you want to prove, what you want to teach, what you want to
establish, and what you want people’s minds to carry away. If you yourself begin in a fog, you may depend upon
it you will leave your people in darkness. Cicero, one of the greatest ancient orators, said long ago, “No one
can possibly speak clearly and eloquently about a subject which he does not understand”-and I am satisfied that
he spoke the truth. Archbishop Whately was a very shrewd observer of human nature, and he said rightly of a
vast number of preachers, that “they aimed at nothing, and they hit nothing. Like men landing on an unknown
island, and setting out on a journey of exploration, they set out in ignorance, and traveled on in ignorance
all the day long.”
I ask all young ministers especially, to remember this first hint. I repeat most emphatically-”Take care you
thoroughly understand your subject. Never choose a text of which you do not quite know what it means.” Beware
of taking obscure passages such as those which are to be found in unfulfilled and emblematic prophecies. If a
man will continually preach to an ordinary congregation about the seals and vials and trumpets in Revelation,
or about Ezekiel’s temple, or about predestination, free will, and the eternal purposes of God-it will not be
at all surprising to any reasonable mind if he fails to attain simplicity. I do not mean that these subjects
ought not to be handled occasionally, at fit times, and before a suitable audience. All I say is, that they are
very deep subjects, about which wise Christians often disagree, and it is almost impossible to make them very
simple. We ought to see our subjects plainly, if we wish to make them simple, and there are hundreds of plain
subjects to be found in God’s Word.
Beware, for the same reason, of taking up what I call “fanciful subjects” and “spiritualizing texts”-and then
dragging out of them meanings which the Holy Spirit never intended to put into them. There is no subject
needful for the soul’s health which is not to be found plainly taught and set forth in Scripture. This being
the case, I think a preacher should never take a text and extract from it, as a dentist would a tooth from the
jaw, something which, however true in itself, is not the plain literal meaning of the inspired words. The
sermon may seem very glittering and ingenious, and his people may go away saying, “What a clever parson we have
got!” But if, on examination, they can neither find the sermon in the text, nor the text in the sermon, their
minds are perplexed, and they begin to think the Bible is a deep book which cannot be understood. If you want
to attain simplicity, beware of spiritualizing texts.
When I speak of spiritualizing texts, let me explain what I mean. I remember hearing of a minister in a
northern town, who was famous for preaching in this style. Once he gave out for his text, “He who is so
impoverished that he has no oblation, chooses unto him a tree that will not rot” (Isa. 40:20). “Here,” said he,
“is man by nature impoverished and undone. He has nothing to offer, in order to make satisfaction for his soul.
And what ought he to do? He ought to choose a tree which cannot rot-even the cross of our Lord Jesus
On another occasion, being anxious to preach on the doctrine of indwelling sin, he chose his text out of the
history of Joseph and his brethren, and gave out the words, “The old man of whom you spoke, is he yet alive?”
(Gen. 43:27). Out of this question he ingeniously twisted a discourse about the infection of nature remaining
in the believer-a grand truth, no doubt, but certainly not the truth of the passage. Such instances will, I
trust, be a warning to all my younger brethren. If you want to preach about the indwelling corruption of human
nature, or about Christ crucified, you need not seek for such far-fetched texts as those I have named. If you
want to be simple, mind you choose plain simple texts!
Furthermore, if you wish to see through your subjects thoroughly, and so to attain the foundation of
simplicity, do not be ashamed of dividing your sermons and stating your divisions. I need hardly say this is a
very vexed question. There is a morbid dread of “firstly, secondly, and thirdly” in many quarters. The stream
of ‘fashion’ runs strongly against divisions, and I must frankly confess that a lively undivided sermon is much
better than one divided in a dull, stupid, illogical way. Let every man be fully persuaded in his own mind. He
who can preach sermons which strike and stick without divisions, by all means let him hold on his way and
persevere. But let him not despise his neighbor who divides. All I say is-if we would be simple, there must be
ORDER in a sermon as there is in an army. What wise general would mix up artillery, infantry, and cavalry in
one confused mass in the day of battle? What giver of a banquet or dinner would dream of putting on the table
the whole of the viands at once-the soup, the fish, the entrees, the meat, the salads, the sweets, the dessert,
in one huge dish? Such a host would hardly be thought to serve his dinner well. Just so I say it is with
sermons. By all means let there be order-order, whether you bring out your “firstly, secondly, or thirdly,” or
not-order, whether your divisions are concealed or expressed-order so carefully arranged that your points and
ideas shall follow one another in beautiful regularity, like regiments marching past before the Queen on a
review day in Windsor Park.
For my own part, I honestly confess that I do not think I have preached two sermons in my life without
divisions. I find it of the utmost importance to make people understand, remember, and carry away what I
say-and I am certain that divisions help me to do so. They are, in fact, like hooks and pegs and shelves in the
mind. If you study the sermons of men who have been and are successful preachers, you will always find order,
and often divisions, in their sermons. I am not a bit ashamed to say that I often read the sermons of Mr.
Spurgeon. I like to gather hints about preaching from all quarters. David did not ask about the sword of
Goliath-”Who made it? who polished it? what blacksmith forged it?” He said, “There is nothing like it”-for he
had once used it to cut off its owner’s head. Mr. Spurgeon can preach most ably, and he proves it by keeping
his enormous congregation together. We ought always to examine and analyze sermons which draw people together.
Now when you read Mr. Spurgeon’s sermons, note how clearly and perspicuously he divides a sermon, and fills
each division with beautiful and simple ideas. How easily you grasp his meaning! How thoroughly he brings
before you certain great truths, that hang to you like hooks of steel, and which, once planted in your memory,
you never forget!
My first point, then, if you would be simple in your preaching, is, that you must thoroughly understand your
subject, and if you want to know whether you understand it, try to divide and arrange it. I can only say for
myself; that I have done this ever since I have been a minister. For forty-five years I have kept note books in
which I write down texts and heads of sermons for use when require. Whenever I get hold of a text, and see my
way through it, I put it down and make a note of it. If I do not see my way through a text, I cannot preach on
it, because I know I cannot be simple; and if I cannot be simple, I know I had better not preach at all
2. The second hint I would give is this-Try to use in all your sermons, as far as you can-simple WORDS. In
saying this, however, I must explain myself. When I talk of simple words, I do not mean words of only one
syllable, or words which are purely Saxon. I cannot in this matter agree with Archbishop Whately. I think he
goes too far in his recommendation of Saxon, though there is much truth in what he says about it. I rather
prefer the saying of that wise old heathen Cicero, when he said, that orators should try to use words which are
“in daily common use” among the people. Whether the words are Saxon or not-or of two or three syllables. It
does not matter so long as they are words commonly used and understood by the people. Only, whatever you do,
beware of what the poor shrewdly call “dictionary” words, that is, of words which are abstract, or scientific,
or pedantic, or complicated, or vague, or very long. They may seem very fine, and sound very grand, but they
are rarely of any use. The most powerful and forcible words, as a rule, are very short.
Let me say one word more to confirm what I have stated about that common fallacy of the desirableness of always
using Saxon English. I would remind you that a vast number of words of other than Saxon origin are used by
writers of notorious simplicity. Take, for instance, the famous work of John Bunyan, and look at the very title
of it-The Pilgrim’s Progress. Neither of the leading words in that title is Saxon. Would he have improved
matters if he had called it “The Wayfarer’s Walk”? In saying this I admit freely that words of French and Latin
origin are generally inferior to Saxon; and, as a rule, I would say-use strong pure Saxon words-if you can. All
I mean to say is, that you must not think it a matter of course that words cannot be good and simple if they
are not of Saxon origin. In any case, beware of long words.
Dr. Gee, in his excellent book, ‘Our Sermons’, very ably points out the uselessness of using long words and
expressions not in common use. For example, he says, “Talk of happiness rather than of felicity; talk of
almighty rather than omnipotent; forbidden rather than proscribed; hateful rather than noxious; afterwards
rather than subsequently; call out and draw forth instead of evoke and educe.” We all need to be pulled up
sharply on these points. It is very well to use fine words at Oxford and Cambridge, before classical hearers,
and in preaching before educated audiences. But depend upon it, when you preach to ordinary congregations, the
sooner you throw overboard this sort of English, and use plain common words, the better. One thing, at all
events, is quite certain, without simple words you will never attain simplicity in preaching.
3. The third hint I would offer, if you wish to attain simplicity in preaching, is this-Take care to aim at a
SIMPLE style of composition. I will try to illustrate what I mean. If you take up the sermons preached by that
great and wonderful man Dr. Chalmers, you can hardly fail to see what an enormous number of lines you meet with
without coming to a full stop. This I regard as a great mistake. It may suit Scotland, but it will never do for
England. If you would attain a simple style of composition, beware of writing many lines without coming to a
pause, and so allowing the minds of your hearers to take breath. Beware of colons and semicolons. Stick to
commas and full stops, and take care to write as if you were asthmatical or short of breath. Never write or
speak very long sentences or long paragraphs. Use stops frequently, and start again-and the oftener you do
this, the more likely you are to attain a simple style of composition. Enormous sentences full of colons,
semicolons, and parentheses, with paragraphs of two or three pages’ length, are utterly fatal to simplicity. We
should bear in mind that preachers have to do with hearers and not readers, and that what will “read” well will
not always “speak” well. A reader of English can always help himself by looking back a few lines and refreshing
his mind. A hearer of English hears once for all, and if he loses the thread of your sermon in a long involved
sentence, he very likely never finds it again.
Again, simplicity in your style of composition depends very much upon the proper use of proverbs and pointed
sentences. This is of vast importance. Here, I think, is the value of much that you find in Matthew Henry’s
commentary, and Bishop Hall’s Contemplations. There are some good sayings of this sort in a book not known so
well as it should be, called ‘Papers on Preaching’. Take a few examples of what I mean: “What we weave in
time-we wear in eternity.” “Hell is paved with good intentions.” “Sin forsaken, is one of the best evidences of
sin forgiven.” “It matters little how we die-but it matters much how we live.” “Meddle with no man’s person-but
spare no man’s sin.” “The street is soon clean when every one sweeps before his own door.” “Lying rides on
debt’s back-it is hard for an empty bag to stand upright.” “He who begins with prayer-will end with praise”
“All is not gold that glitters.” “In religion, as in business-there are no gains without pains.” “In the Bible
there are shallows where a lamb can wade-and depths where an elephant must swim.” “One thief on the cross was
saved, that none should despair-and only one, that none should presume.”
Proverbial, pointed, and antithetical sayings of this kind give wonderful perspicuousness and force to a
sermon. Labor to store your minds with them. Use them judiciously, and especially at the end of paragraphs, and
you will find them an immense help to the attainment of a simple style of composition. But of long, involved,
complicated sentences-always beware!
4. The fourth hint I will give is this: If you wish to preach simply-use a DIRECT style. What do I mean by
this? I mean the practice and custom of saying “I” and “you.” When a man takes up this style of preaching, he
is often told that he is conceited and egotistical. The result is that many preachers are never direct-and
always think it very humble and modest and becoming to say “we.” But I remember good Bishop Villiers saying
that “we” was a word kings and corporations should use, and they alone-but that parish clergymen should always
talk of “I” and “you.” I endorse that saying with all my heart. I declare I never can understand what the
famous pulpit “we” means. Does the preacher who all through his sermon keeps saying “we” mean himself and the
bishop? or himself and the Church? or himself and the congregation? or himself and the early Fathers? or
himself and the Reformers? or himself and all the wise men in the world? or, after all, does he only mean
myself, plain “John Smith” or “Thomas Jones”? If he only means himself, what earthly reason can he give for
using the plural number, and not saying simply and plainly “I”? When he visits his parishioners, or sits by a
sick-bed, or catechises his school, or orders bread at the baker’s, or meat at the butcher’s-he does not say
“we,” but “I.” Why, then, I should like to know, can he not say “I” in the pulpit? What right has he, as a
modest man, to speak for anyone but himself? Why not stand up on Sunday and say, “Reading in the Word of God, I
have found a text containing such things as these, and I come to set them before you”?
Many people, I am sure, do not understand what the preacher’s “we” means. The expression leaves them in a kind
of fog. If you say, “I, the pastor of the parish, come here to talk of something that concerns your soul,
something you should believe, something you should do”-you are at any rate understood. But if you begin to talk
in the vague plural number of what” we” ought to do, many of your hearers do not know what you are driving at,
and whether you are speaking to yourself or them. I charge and entreat my younger brethren in the ministry not
to forget this point. Do try to be as direct as possible. Never mind what people say of you. In this particular
do not imitate Chalmers, or Melville, or certain other living pulpit celebrities. Never say “we” when you mean
“I.” The more you get into the habit of talking plainly to the people, in the first person singular, as old
Bishop Latimer did-the simpler will your sermon be, and the more easily understood. The glory of Whitefield’s
sermons is their directness. But unhappily they were so badly reported, that we cannot now appreciate them.
5. The fifth and last hint I wish to give you is this: If you would attain simplicity in preaching, you must
use plenty of anecdotes and illustrations. You must regard illustrations as windows through which light is let
in upon your subject. Upon this point a great deal might be said, but the limits of a small treatise oblige me
to touch it very brieï¬‚y. I need hardly remind you of the example of Him who “spoke as never any man
spoke”-our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. Study the four Gospels attentively, and mark what a wealth of
illustrations His sermons generally contain. How often you find figure upon figure, parable upon parable, in
His discourses! There was nothing under His eyes apparently from which He did not draw lessons. The birds of
the air, and the fish in the sea, the sheep, the goats, the cornfield, the vineyard, the ploughman, the sower,
the reaper, the fisherman, the shepherd, the vinedresser, the woman kneading meal, the ï¬‚owers, the grass, the
bank, the wedding feast, the sepulcher-all were made vehicles for conveying thoughts to the minds of hearers.
What are such parables as the prodigal son, the good Samaritan, the ten virgins, the king who made a marriage
for his son, the rich man and Lazarus, the laborers of the vineyard, and others-what are all these but stirring
stories that our Lord tells in order to convey some great truth to the souls of His hearers? Try to walk in His
footsteps and follow His example.
If you pause in your sermon, and say, “Now I will tell you a story”-I pledge that all who are not too fast
asleep will pick up their ears and listen. People like similes, illustrations, and well-told stories-and will
listen to them when they will attend to nothing else. And from what countless sources we can get illustrations!
Take all the book of nature around us. Look at the sky above and the world beneath. Look at history. Look at
all the branches of science, at geology, at botany, at chemistry, at astronomy. What is there in heaven above
or earth below from which you may not bring illustrations to throw light on the message of the gospel? Read
Bishop Latimer’s sermons, the most popular, perhaps, that were ever preached. Read the works of Brooks, and
Watson, and Swinnock, the Puritans. How full they are of illustrations, figures, metaphors, and stories! Look
at Mr. Moody’s sermons. What is one secret of his popularity? He fills his sermons with pleasing stories. He is
the best speaker, says an Arabian proverb, who can turn the ear into an eye!
For my part, I not only try to tell stories, but in country parishes I have sometimes put before people
familiar illustrations which they can see. For instance-Do I want to show them that there must have been a
first great cause or Being who made this world? I have sometimes taken out my watch, and have said, “Look at
this watch. How well it is made! Do any of you suppose for a moment that all the screws, all the wheels, all
the pins of that watch came together by accident? Would not any one say there must have been a watchmaker? And
if so, it follows most surely that there must have been a Maker of the world, whose handiwork we see engraved
on the face of every one of those glorious planets going their yearly rounds and keeping time to a single
second. Look at the world in which you live, and the wonderful things which it contains. Will you tell me that
there is no God, and that creation is the result of chance?” Or sometimes I have taken out a bunch of keys and
shaken them. The whole congregation, when they hear the keys, look up. Then I say, “Would there be need of any
keys if all men were perfect and honest? What does this bunch of keys show? Why, they show that the heart of
man is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked.” Illustration, I confidently assert, is one of the
best receipts for making a sermon simple, clear, perspicuous, and easily understood. Lay yourselves out for it.
Pick up illustrations wherever you can. Keep your eyes open, and use them well. Happy is that preacher who has
an eye for similitudes, and a memory stored with well-chosen stories and illustrations. If he is a real man of
God, and knows how to deliver a sermon, he will never preach to bare walls and empty benches.
But I must add a word of caution. There is a proper way of telling stories. If a man cannot tell stories
naturally-he had better not tell them at all. Illustration, again, after all I have said in its favor, may be
carried too far. I remember a notable instance of this in the case of the great Welsh preacher, Christmas
Evans. There is in print a sermon of his about the wonderful miracle that took place in Gadara, when devils
took possession of the swine, and the whole herd ran down violently into the sea. He paints it so minutely that
it really becomes ludicrous by reason of the words put in the mouth of the swine-herders who told their master
of the loss he had sustained. “Oh! sir,” says one, “the pigs have all gone!” “But,” says the master, “where
have they gone?” “They have run down into the sea.” “But who drove them down?” “Oh! sir, that wonderful man.”
“Well, what sort of a man was he? What did he do?” “Why, sir, he came and talked such strange things, and the
whole herd ran suddenly down the steep place into the sea.” “What, the old black boar and all?” “Yes, sir, the
old black boar has gone too; for as we looked round, we just saw the end of his tail going over the cliff.” Now
that is going to an extreme. So, again, Dr. Guthrie’s admirable sermons are occasionally so overlaid with
illustrations as to remind one of cake made almost entirely of plums and containing hardly any ï¬‚our. Put
plenty of color and picture into your sermon by all means. Draw sweetness and light from all sources and from
all creatures-from the heavens and the earth, from history, from science. But after all there is a limit. You
must be careful how you use color-lest you do as much harm as good. Do not put on color by spoonfuls, but with
a brush. This caution remembered, you will find color an immense aid in the attainment of simplicity and
perspicuousness in preaching.
And now bear in mind that my five points are these-
1. If you want to attain simplicity in preaching, you must have a clear knowledge of what you are going to
2. If you would attain simplicity in preaching, you must use simple words.
3. If you would attain simplicity in preaching, you must seek to acquire a simple style of composition, with
short sentences and as few colons and semicolons as possible.
4. If you would attain simplicity in preaching, aim at directness.
5. If you would attain simplicity in preaching, make abundant use of illustration and anecdote.
Let me add to all this one plain word of APPLICATION. You will never attain simplicity in preaching without
plenty of work-pains and trouble, I say emphatically, pains and trouble. When Turner, the great painter, was
asked by some one how it was he mixed his colors so well, and what it was that made them so different from
those of other artists-”Mix them? mix them? mix them? Why, with brains, sir.” I am persuaded that, in
preaching, little can be done except by trouble and by pains.
I have heard that a young and careless clergyman once said to Richard Cecil, “I think I need more faith.” “No,”
said the wise old man-”you need more work. You need more pains. You must not think that God will do work for
you-though He is ready to do it by you.” I entreat my younger brethren to remember this. I beg them to make
time for their composition of sermons, to take trouble and to exercise their brains by reading. Only mind that
you read what is useful.
I would not have you spend your time in reading the early church Fathers in order to help your preaching. They
are very useful in their way, but there are many things more useful in modern writers, if you choose them
Read good models, and become familiar with good specimens of simplicity in preaching. As your best model, take
the English Bible. If you speak the language in which that is written, you will speak well. Read John Bunyan’s
immortal work, the Pilgrim’s progress. Read it again and again, if you wish to attain simplicity in preaching.
Do not be above reading the Puritans. Some of them no doubt are heavy. Goodwin and Owen are very heavy, though
excellent artillery in position. Read such books as Baxter, and Watson, and Traill, and Flavel, and Charnock,
and Hall, and Henry. They are, to my mind, models of the best simple English spoken in old times. Remember,
however, that language alters with years. They spoke English, and so do we, but their style was different from
ours. Read beside them the best models of modern English that you can get at. I believe the best English writer
for the last hundred years was William Cobbett, the political Radical. I think he wrote the finest simple
Saxon-English the world has ever seen. In the present day I do not know a greater master of tersely spoken
Saxon-English than John Bright. Among old political orators, the speeches of Lord Chatham and Patrick Henry,
the American, are models of good English. Last, but not least, never forget that, next to the Bible, there is
nothing in the English language which, for combined simplicity, perspicuousness, eloquence, and power, can be
compared with some of the great speeches in Shakespeare. Models of this sort must really be studied, and
studied “with brains,” too, if you wish to attain a good style of composition in preaching. On the other hand,
do not be above talking to the poor, and visiting your people from house to house. Sit down with your people by
the fireside, and exchange thoughts with them on all subjects. Find out how they think and how they express
themselves, if you want them to understand your sermons. By so doing you will insensibly learn much. You will
be continually picking up modes of thought, and get notions as to what you should say in your pulpit.
A humble country clergyman was once asked “whether he studied the fathers.” The worthy man replied, that he had
little opportunity of studying the fathers, as they were generally out in the fields when he called. But he
studied the mothers more, because he often found them at home-and he could talk to them.
Wittingly or unwittingly, the good man hit a nail right on the head. We must talk to our people when we are out
of church-if we would understand how to preach to them in the church.
1. I will only say, in CONCLUSION, that whatever we preach, or whatever pulpit we occupy, whether we preach
simply or not, whether we preach written or extempore, we ought to aim not merely at letting off fireworks, but
at preaching that which will do lasting good to souls! Let us beware of fireworks in our preaching. “Beautiful”
sermons, “brilliant” sermons, “clever” sermons, “popular” sermons, are often sermons which have no effect on
the congregation, and do not draw men to Jesus Christ. Let us aim so to preach, that what we say may really
come home to men’s minds and consciences and hearts, and make them think and consider.
2. All the simplicity in the world can do no good, unless you preach the simple gospel of Jesus Christ so fully
and clearly that everybody can understand it. If ‘Christ crucified’ has not His rightful place in your sermons,
and ‘sin’ is not exposed as it should be, and your people are not plainly told what they ought to believe, and
be, and do-your preaching is of no use!
3. All the simplicity in the world, again, is useless without a good lively delivery. If you bury your head in
your bosom, and mumble over your manuscript in a dull, monotonous, droning way, like a bee in a bottle, so that
people cannot understand what you are speaking about-your preaching will be in vain. Depend upon it, delivery
is not sufficiently attended to in our Church. In this, as in everything else connected with the science of
preaching, I consider the Church of England is sadly deficient. I know that I began preaching alone in the New
Forest, and nobody ever told me what was right or wrong in the pulpit. The result was that the first year of my
preaching was a series of experiments. We get no help in these matters at Oxford and Cambridge. The utter lack
of any proper training for the pulpit is one great blot and defect in the system of the Church of England.
4. Above all, let us never forget that all the simplicity in the world is useless without prayer for the
outpouring of the Holy Spirit, and the grant of God’s blessing, and a life corresponding in some measure to
what we preach. Be it ours to have an earnest desire for the souls of men, while we seek for simplicity in
preaching the gospel of Jesus Christ, and let us never forget to accompany our sermons by holy living and